STB Architecture

 STB Architecture

In figure below we can see all the STB layers. There is four types of STB layers,

  1. Application layer
  2. Middleware layer
  3. RTOS (Real Time Operating System) layer
  4. Hardware layer

Set up box Architecture


 STB layers Description

 (1)Application Layer

Application layer is upper layer to the middleware layer.  In this application layer we run all the multimedia applications. Application layer access the network services. Application layer provide services to access the electronic mail, file transfers & game etc.


EPG (Electronic Program Guide)

EPG is a menu bar where entire TV Channel list can see attached with applications like FM Radio etc. in menu bar we can see  channels list with program name & by using scroll bar we can see the entire TV programs list with timing in the menu. There is also favourite TV channel list icon in which we can put our entire favourite programs list. In menu bar also can see upcoming programs list so EPG have all the TV programs or TV channels list in the menu bar & manage them.

Normally EPG function tacks to load channels is 10 sec but if EPG function is not properly working then it can take time to load channels in menu bar may be more than 10 sec.


Pay per view

By using pay per view option we can see only those TV channels for which we are paying. In this feature we select channel list and pay for listed channels only that we can see without interruption. Pay per view is like a pay per channel. Pay per view save our money this shows only paid TV channels so we automatically removed unwanted unusual & unpaid channels.



STB provides the gaming facility in it. There are different kinds of games are available in the STB.


Multimedia Applications

STB provides multimedia applications. We can play music, listen FM Radio & international Radio etc.


Personal video recorder (PVR)

By using PVR feature we can record all TV Channels programs videos in a USB pen drive or a Card Reader. Also we can record FM Radio etc.


Video on demand (VOD)

This option is very famous because we can see selected favourite movies, video & audio on demand at home at any time & also can record videos or audios in portable devices (USB Pen Drive, Card Reader etc.).

Usually IPTV has VOD facility by using this connection we can get movies or audios. Most of the cable operators or telecoms companies provide us VOD facilities.


(2) Middleware layer

Middleware layer is found between the operating system and the applications layer. Middleware is computer software & run software applications. Middleware receive the message signals & run all the applications into the systems. Thus we can say middleware layer collect information & operate according to given information or instruction.

Middleware layer have

  • Java Virtual machine
  • Graphics libraries
  • Java native libraries
  • HTML Virtual machine


STB Architecture


(3) Real-time operating system (RTOS) layer

A real time OS system a system which functions in real time and called as RTOS. Real time OS does more than one task at a time.  A real time system made of memory, processor & some other peripheral devices.  processer may be used microprocessor or microcontroller etc.  RTOS layer have External interface input (keyboard etc.) or output (Speakers, mobile phone etc.)

Real-time OS make interference or communication between Hardware & Software.



(4) Hardware layer

Hardware layer is also called as physical layer. Hardware layer transmits bits from one system to another system, regular transmission of a stream of bits over a hardware medium. Hardware layer define how to transmit data  over the cable & choose best quality cables or hardware for best output results.

Example: Ethernet port etc.


Hardware Is Divided In Two Parts

  • Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL)

Hardware abstraction layer recognizes hardware parts. HAL access & process hardware components.

For example,

When drivers are loaded in operating systems for sound card. Then we access hardware of sound card by using sound card driver this process is done by the HAL.

Thus we can say that HAL access all hardware’s drivers & identified all hardware components in the system.

HAL can run two or more music of the sounds at a time by access sound card thus we can hear two or more difference-different sound from the speakers.

HAL access all drivers which installed in the operating system. HAL identify any new hardware parts by installed its driver in the operating system.


  • Digital Set Top Box

This is a compact device. Inside this  installed the hardware component of STB & used it for Woking.

It gives High Definition picture Quality. Digital STB have different- different model we can see in the market.